Centro de Investigaciones Económicas - CINVE

  • The Cost of Crime and Violence in Five Latin American Countries


    Diego Aboal, Bibiana Lanzilotta, Magdalena Dominguez, Maren Variro Abstract This paper provides evidence on the costs imposed by crime and violence in five Latin American countries: Chile, Costa Rica, Honduras, Paraguay and Uruguay. Crime and violence stand out as one of the major social challenges to be dealt with in Latin America. However, the incidence of crime (and thus its social and economic impact) varies among countries. Based on a common theoretical framework across all five countries, we use a costs-accounting methodology and find that the cost of criminality varies…

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  • “Does public financial support stimulate innovation and productivity? An impact evaluation”


    Autor(es):  Aboal, Diego – Garda, Paula. Resumen: This paper contributes to the empirical literature that evaluates the effects of public financial support to innovation on innovation expenditures, innovation itself and productivity in developing countries. Propensity score matching techniques and data from Inn ovation Surveys are used to analyse the impacts of public financial support to innovation on Uruguayan firms. The results indicate that there is no crowding-out effect of private innovation investment by public funds and that public financial support in Uruguay seems to increase private innovation expenditures. Financial support also appears to…

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  • Innovation and Productivity in Services and Manufacturing: The Role of ICT Investment


    Diego Aboal and Ezequiel Tacsir-CINVE Abstract Several studies have highlighted ICT as a driver of firm productivity in developed countries. However, the evidence about the impacts of ICT on services and manufacturing and particularly for developing countries is scarce. This paper focuses on understanding the determinants of investments in ICT at firm level and how this adoption ultimately affects innovation and productivity of Uruguayan services firms vis a vis manufacturing. Results show that ICT investments are more subject to economies of scale than other types of investments, are important for…

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  • Does Innovation Destroy Employment in the Services Sector? Evidence from a Developing Country


    Diego Aboal, Paula Garda, Bibiana Lanzilotta y Marcelo Perera Abstract The employment effect of innovation in the heterogeneous universe of services is investigated using firm-level data provided by the 2004–9 Uruguayan services innovation surveys. The empirical analysis shows that the effect of product innovation on employment is positive, while process innovation appears to have no effect. Process innovation activities tend to replace low-skilled jobs with jobs of a higher level of qualification. Product innovation allows for efficiency gains in the production of new services with unskilled labor, and no gains…

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  • Nitrous oxide emission reductions from cutting excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications


    Authors Francisco Rosas Bruce A. Babcock Dermot J. Hayes Author Affiliations 1. Universidad ORT Uruguay and Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE), Montevideo, Uruguay 2. Department of Economics, Iowa State University, USA 3. Department of Economics, Iowa State University, USA Abstract Farmers may choose to apply nitrogen fertilizer at a rate that exceeds the average ex post agronomically optimal rate when the yield response to nitrogen varies across growing seasons. Negative environmental consequences such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and/or water pollution can result when all the applied nitrogen is not…

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  • A nonlinear approach to the tourism-led growth hypothesis: the case of the MERCOSUR

    Juan Gabriel Brida, Bibiana Lanzilotta, Juan Sebastián Pereyra y Fiorella Pizzolon


    Abstract This paper analyses the tourism-led growth hypothesis for the four countries of the MERCOSUR regional trade block. By applying nonlinear techniques, we explore whether tourism activity leads – in the long run – to economic growth, or, alternatively, economic expansion drives tourism growth, or indeed a bidirectional relationship exists between the two variables. To this end, non-parametric cointegration and causality tests are applied to quarterly data for the period 1990–2011. We show the existence of a cointegrated relationship between real per capita gross domestic product and tourism expenditure for…

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